The Federal Government is the largest employer in the United States and most government jobs aren't located in Washington, DC. Regardless of where you live, a federal government job can be a good alternative for job seekers to consider, especially in a tight job market - the salaries are good and the benefits are generous. Jobs available, just to mention a few, include international foreign service positions, jobs with the FBI, the Transportation Security Administration, the IRS, and the Post Office. MakingtheDifference.org has information on the kinds of federal jobs that are available, public fellowships, and jobs that are "hot" at the moment.
The US Office of Personnel Management (OPM) provides information on US Government hiring, veteran's information, student opportunities, federal government employee and retiree resources, and federal salaries. Or, go directly to USAJobs.gov, the Federal Government's official source for Federal government job listings, job applications, and employment information, to search for and apply for federal government job openings.
Eligible veterans receive advantages in Federal employment, including preference for initial employment and a higher retention standing in the event of layoffs. About.com US Government Info Guide, Robert Longley, has the details on veterans' preference in government hiring.